What is an E-bike hall sensor? Everything to Know


Hall Sensor is the type of sensor that is present in approximately most e-bike motors. It is important to know what they are, what is their purpose, why bike needs them, and what is their function of them. This question comes to everyone’s mind what actually hall sensor is?

These are the type of sensors that possess a magnetic field, as they have magnets so it detects the controller turn in motor position. This magnetic effect of the sensor detects the turnings of the motor controller. They are designed in such a way that they help the controller drive the motor position.

Working of Hall Sensor:

For the working purpose, the electric power is transferred through the metallic pads of the motors, as the magnets are present they create a magnetic field. Due to this field, the charges are transferred to both sides of the metallic pad. Positive charges go at one edge and negative charges go to the other edge of the metallic pad.

The detection of charges can be determined by the voltage, if the voltage is in a high amount, then it is an indication of the magnetic field present near to it, if the voltage is in low quantity then it is the signal that the magnetic field is not present around it.

Working of Hall Effect in a Motor System:

The controller plays a very crucial role in its working. The controllers determine the motor position and detect its turnings at every stage. This working of the controller is due to the signals coming from the sensor. When the signal indicates the controller, then it starts working. If the signal shows its peak, then it indicates that a magnet is working in the right direction, or if the signal is showing its low peak, this indicates that the magnet is already gone in its direction.

e-bike hall sensor

Role of Hall Effect Sensor in a BLDC Motor Controller:

The hall effect sensors are those sensors that transfer rotors to the motor controllers. It enhances the system automatically due to the presence of rotor magnets. That gives readings of the rotations in a motor system.

The system controller names BLDC motors are a kind of circuit that helps the motor to move in the right manner. This system consists of quality, performance, durability, and efficiency for its proper working and technicians work on these attributes for its development and performance.

The rotor magnets and coils manage the working of the electric field, while small controllers are considered the main components to drive the motor system. This main vital component needs some best sensory units for its performance. The two important sensor grounds are speed and motor for the process of commutation.

In the brush type of motor, the brush worked with the controllers and turn off the current for the proper performance of the motor. But in the system of BLDC motors, they require electric current for its work because they don’t possess brushes. In the BLDC system, they produce waves in a rectangular manner (voltage) due to the presence of rotor magnets and produce a magnetic field for the process of rotation of the motor.

Role of Speed and Position in the Rotor Mechanism:

The process of commutation in a motor work in 6 ways. H type of bridge is utilized to flow the 6 vectors present in the motor with three sensors and three wires, and each of them makes an angle of 60, and all they combined make an angle of 360 in rotation.

For the movement of the motor, first, the controller’s feedback current with the help of a stator coil. This action generates produces a magnetic field which generates torque on the system of the rotor. Due to this effect, the motors start their rotation.

After the rotor rotation, the rotor will stop working due to the polarity. At this point, the generated magnetic field stops working and starts attracting to the rotor system. For this reason, the motor system stops transferring its current to the stator coils and after this action, a new type of magnetic field produces and the rotor again starts its rotation. This is all about the working of commutation in the right direction.

The value of Speed and Position come in their original form a the right direction which requires to sense when it reaches its position.

A sensor is an essential part to give remarks to the control system this indicates that the arrives at the main position of the system. If the process of commutation works higher or lower as compared to the speed, the magnets come out of the magnetic field of the coil. This action becomes the reason for the vibration of the rotor and stops it from rotating.

As for the position of the rotor, it is detected by the coil for the further step of the commutation. This shows that the position is the vital parameter.

A wide range of sensors is used in the electric bike motor companies, e.g Switches, Encoders, and potentiometers. Due to this rotating action, the hall effect sensor is the most commonly used in the motor system.

Working of Hall Effect Sensor in BLDC Motors:

The BLDC mechanism has three sensors that are fixed on the rotor or the coil. These sensors are placed at the angle of 120 and their position a change from one another, and capable to give angles between 0 to 360. After that when sensors are linked to the magnetic field or the mechanism of the rotor, it produces pulses in the form of 0 and 1.

In the way, the hall sensors become capable to give angels to the rotors. The whole mechanism deals with the A, B, and C hall sensors, and gives the voltage in the form of rectangular waves. When the magnet of the rotor passes the sensor, it produces either a low signal or a high signal but it depends on the poles of the magnet either North or South. As the rotor passes all three types of sensors, these sensors switch between the below or above, this action gives the sensor an angle of 60.

The hall effect sensor is capable to detect the charges that are moving in different directions. The magnetic field which is produced by this action is replaced by the analog signal or digital system that makes the electronic system efficient.

The measurements of angel or Speed can be calculated based on rotor rotations and angels given by them.

Calculation of Angle:

It is calculated by the signals produced by the hall sensors. Due to the pulse rate, the angel can be detected by the degrees between 0 and 360.

Calculation of Speed:

The speed can be detected by the periods produced by the hall sensors. Due to the frequency, speed, and period of the sensor. You can detect a period by this formula.

f= 1/P (Period)

Benefits of Utilizing Hall Effect Sensors in a Motor Controller Mechanism:

As these sensors consist of magnets and are very simple because of their performance. These are effective to the cost of the motor controller mechanism.

Due to their easy performance, these sensors are applicable on the high type or motor controller mechanism and automatic mechanisms.

These hall sensors are designed according to other atmospheric situations like vibrations, dust particles, temperature factors, and humidity issues.

What are hall sensor throttles?

This is the mechanism that is used to connect the electric bicycle’s controller to the voltage which is linked to the position of the throttle or the speed range. The range of voltage changes from 8 to 3.5 volts with the internal voltage of 4.3 volts with a low current of 6 microamperes.

With the help of the internal DC voltage, the hall sensor of the throttle generates the linear type of DC voltage which is dependent on the rotation and mechanism of the magnetic field and wires connected to it. The magnetic powered supply can be positive, negative, and neutral, this action relies on the throttle mechanism and magnetic intensity. If the magnetic field is not produced or considered as 0, the voltage will be 2.5 volts. While the negative one is 1 volt or the positive one is 4 volt.

Role of Hall Sensors in Throttle Systems:

Throttles play a very crucial role in the mechanism of the motor and its performance. After this, the important part is the mechanism of the E brake lever system and the electric bike’s normal mechanism of the brake system. You can disconnect the electric power that is coming to the motor system controller, with the help of circuits connected and inserted into the brake system of levers . This system helps stops the supply of the current. It also ends the bike mechanism with full safety before the test of the bike ride, performing on the throttle system.

Kinds of Throttle hall Sensors:

The varieties of throttle are designed according to the hall effect and the performance of the motors attached to the electric bicycles motors.

Full and Half Twist SENSORS:

These types of throttle sensors rely on the handle length that twists and causes the rotation of the magnets. And this action is under the control of an angel which is 68 degrees.

Thumb Throttle SENSOR:

This also moves on the rotation of 68-degree angles, in this type of sensor foot and finger throttle are also resent on it. The normal twist throttle mechanism which is present on the normal electric bikes can also be linked to the throttle box free with the support of the cable.

Testing of Throttle:

You can test the mechanism of the throttle with the help of a tester that is battery-powered voltage i.e. 5 volts. At this point, you can observe the perfect accuracy or you don’t have to worry about the position of the wheel. If this situation does not become possible for work for the internal and external controller system. In this situation stands your bike straight and keep the position of the wheel straight on the ground surface.

After this check the twisting effect of the thumb throttle, if it creates noise or creates some problem while giving the twisting effect. So stop testing it and check its rotation, fix it then check it again for further process.

Wiring of throttle:

This mechanism of throttle needs three wires for its performance. The wires are of three colors, red, green, and black. Red wire for the 5 volts, black for 0 battery ground, and green for the output of the sensor.

Always check the wires, you never know which are used for which purpose, and you can not trust its mechanism. Be aware while checking its wire compatibility. Check the wire and connector that you connected and which side of the connector to the wires whether male or female connector. The separate direction shows the position of pins attached to them. They can be easily mixed, be aware while you are detecting their performance by yourself.

Profiling and output of throttle system:

After the throttle testing and wiring testing, then the output of the sensor must be detected. If the throttle mechanism is in a low position, the voltage reading in the meter is 84 volts. In the wide-open throttle, the range of voltage is 4.25 volt. But don’t rely completely on these voltage readings, if the position of the magnet is changed or we replace the magnet then the reading will be 2.5 volts.

If you face a big problem, then check the profile of the throttle mechanism for proper error detection. You can see the dead error places, errors in operations, and the wheelie problem shows the problem which must need to be fixed.

For this reason tape your throttle at every 10th segment, starting from 0 to 100 percent, with the operation increment rate to 10 percent. Then fill the form of the throttle for its perfect output. Make a graph according to the divided segments and divided percentages.

How You can replace your electric bicycle’s hall effect sensor?

The type of motors called brush motors utilizes electronic controllers to look after the timing and power supply of the motor. For this reason, some motors use hall effect sensors on the internal side of the hub motor, which helps in the detection of the position of its rotation and movement. This action allows the controller to control the timing and power supply of the motor according to the correct time and rotation.

Here are some ways through which you can replace your hall effect sensor with a suitable sensor or method.

Components and Tools:

You can buy parts from Digikey, their parts are considered as best for the replacement of this kind of sensor. They are available in other places as well. buy some extra for yourself in time of need you can utilize them because these are not much expensive you can keep them with yourself. Also, keep zip ties in small size for this purpose.

Tools like pliers, ratchet cutters for wires, suitable screwdrivers, oil, tape, and glue. These tools are necessarily important for the replacement of hall effect sensors.

e-bike chain

Detect the Dead Sensor:

First, check the type and colors of the wirings. There are eight types of wires present in the motor system i.e. green, black, blue, yellow, and red. Detect their mechanism and which wire belongs to which mechanism. After that check the three wires that are large and give power to the motor i.e. yellow, blue, and green. Then check the wires that are smaller and give power to the sensor i.e. black and red. After this check the wire that gives power to the controller and sensors i.e. blue, green, and yellow. For the replacement purpose, there is necessary for the smaller wires.

For this purpose, move the motor for the disconnection of one type of sensor then move for the disconnection of the second and the third kind of sensor. In the moving of motor, check that which sensor gets failed in this duration, replace that sensor with the good one.

If the above method not working properly then make a table for the reading, attach the mechanism and write the reading after connecting it to the 5 volts, detect and mark the reading after every rotation of the sensor. Use the tape to detect readings on the 46 segments of the sensors. In this way, you can detect the failed sensor.

Wheel Disassemble:

The sensors are tied on one side of the wire where they arise into the hub, but they can vary. utilize tools like screwdrivers for the removal of the cover of the hub and socket for the removal of the bolts.

But be careful while you are removing it because it contains axle and coil against the rotor magnet force. Be careful, when you lose it from its place, it will create sound when it comes to opening. If it creates difficulty, put a few drops of oil and then remove it, it will open easily.

Remove the dead sensor:

As the sensor and leads are attached with the cables that are small in size on the board of the sensor. Utilize the tool like a cutter to cut its wires from the coil and board of the sensor. With the help of the soldering iron, detach soldering from the leads and push these wires to the opposite side. After this detach the board to the other side.

With the use of pliers, put the sensors, trash the bad ones, and if you want to clean the other good ones. Clean them and again attach the new or good ones with the help of glue. For the proper checking whether is it working or not, check and move the wire leads, it creates a problem then check it again for the proper performance.

After the placement of the new sensor, check the wires and then again place your things on your bike.

Final Words:

As sensors are important for the motors for their proper function. It is good to choose the good and durable one for your electric bicycles. Otherwise, you will face the problem. You can purchase from the renowned company, these are low in rates you can keep extra for yourself. But, if it requires replacing it with the new one, you can replace it in many ways. First, you must have proper tools because these are very essential for fixing and replacement.

You can see multiple ways from many videos can make a table for detection of the error that can arise on the sensor.

FAQs:

Is it necessary to detect the wire color for its replacement?

Yes, of course, it is an essential thing because different wires have a separate function for their performance. For the replacement purpose, detect the small wires that are responsible and connected to the leads of the sensor board.

Are brush motors don’t require electric current?

Yes, these don’t need electric current because of the presence of brushes that don’t need electricity as compared to the other motors because they don’t require magnets for the generation of electric current.

yamimoto

I am Aman Dwivedi. I am a self-proclaimed e-bike enthusiast. I love nothing more than spending my days researching, testing, and writing about all things electric bike related. From the latest e-bike models to the best accessories and conversion kits, I am always on the lookout for new and exciting ways to get people riding electric bikes. Whether it's helping people find the perfect e-bike for their needs or sharing my latest electric bike adventures, I am passionate about getting more people riding electric bikes and loving it!

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